Welcome to the world of programming languages! Programming languages are used by developers and computer scientists to create software and applications. In this article, we will explore four types of programming languages: low-level, high-level, scripting and markup. We’ll also look at database query languages. Let’s dive right in!

Low-level languages

Assembly is a low-level programming language. It’s the closest to actual machine code, which is 1s and 0s or binary code, that you can get in comparison to other programming languages. Assembly language uses words, abbreviations and numbers rather than binary code, so it is easier for humans to understand. The instructions are then translated into machine language, which is binary code that computers read and execute tasks with. This way, the computer understands what needs to be done without programmers having the confusion of looking at raw machine code.

Machine language is the lowest level of programming language. It consists entirely of binary code. It is the only language that can be directly understood by a computer without any translation. Each type of processor has its own unique machine language, meaning a program written in one specific machine language won’t work on another. Machine language instructions are very basic and include commands for setting memory locations, adding numbers together or comparing two values. The instructions don’t look like words; they look like long strings of 0s and 1s which represent binary data.

Most modern engineers do not need to program in assembly nowadays because machine-level instructions are automatically generated by higher-level languages in conjunction with the device’s architecture.

Higher-level languages

Higher-level programming languages are computer languages that allow us to give instructions to a computer in an easier way. These commands come out looking like something programmers can understand more easily than if they were written using only the language of computers, which is often referred to as assembly or machine code. The higher-level language takes care of translating our instructions into machine code so that it can be understood by the computer and executed correctly.

When writing a Python program, you would use terms such as: “list = [1,2,3]” This command tells the program to create a list with three items inside it, including the numbers 1, 2 and 3. In assembly, this same instruction might look something like “arr 0x2 #24”, making it much harder for someone who doesn’t know how assembly works. This is what makes higher-level programming so useful. It provides us with convenient ways of telling computers exactly what we want them to do without having learned all about their inner workings first.

Scripting languages

Scripting languages are a category of programming languages that allow you to write scripts or lists of instructions for computers. Scripts tell the computer what tasks it needs to do in order and how they should be done. For example, if you wanted a video game to start playing music when someone presses a button on the controller, then your script might say: “when player 1 hits the ‘A’ button on their remote control: play song X”. This is just one example. Scripting languages can also be used for other kinds of tasks, such as creating websites or automating repetitive processes at work.

JavaScript is a computer language that helps developers make websites and programs. It supports the creation of webpages and applications with dynamic, changing content, so objects change as visitors interact with them. For instance, when you move your mouse over an image on the page, it might start to zoom in; this wouldn’t be possible without JavaScript. Sometimes, if you click a button, something will happen, such as new information appearing right there on the screen instead of having to navigate to another page. JavaScript makes this kind of interactive experience possible. By using JavaScript, creators can infuse more life and interesting features into their digital works — making sure people have a fun time exploring what they’ve made!

Python is another powerful scripting language commonly used to build web applications or automate tasks across systems. Both languages are based on the same core principles but have their own unique syntax making them distinct from one another.

Python is a high-level, interpreted scripting language. It’s an open-source programming language created by Guido van Rossum in the late 1980s and first released publicly in 1991. Python has been commonly used for web development, software development, scientific computing and artificial intelligence applications due to its versatility and powerful library of existing tools. Python code can be written quickly with fewer lines than other languages, such as Java or C++, which makes it ideal for prototyping projects as well as large-scale applications.

Specialized languages

Some higher-level languages are more specialized. As an example, Matlab is a higher-level language that specializes in linear algebra. Its name is short for “Matrix Laboratory.” It also has lots of tools built into it, so you don’t have to write lines and lines of code yourself. Matlab is a computer coding language that lets you create programs and perform calculations. It can be used for a wide variety of tasks, including making graphs, solving complicated math problems and analyzing data. 

If you wanted to figure out how much money someone would need to save each month to make $100,000 by the end of 10 years, Matlab could do those calculations quickly and easily. Alternatively, if you want to measure the temperature outside over time, Matlab makes it easier to do this than other scripting languages. You just tell it when to start recording temperatures and then plot them on a graph so that anyone can see what happened throughout the day.

Another example of a specialized language is R. R is an amazing language that specializes in statistics, and lets users do amazing things with data. It is a great option for organizing and summarizing large amounts of information. It can also make graphs to visualize the data in a way that makes understanding the results easy, such as bar charts or line plots. R even assists with more complicated types of analysis, such as regression, which looks at how different variables might impact each other. No matter what kind of statistics project you have on your plate, chances are good that R has something special to offer.

Markup languages

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) are the two core technologies for building webpages.

HTML is used to format websites, so they work correctly. HTML uses tags as its commands or instructions, which tell the browser what content goes on each page and how it should be organized.

Here are some examples:

<html> – This tag is used when starting an HTML document, just like you’d start any essay with your name in the top right corner, so everyone knows who wrote it.

<head> – We also use this <head> tag at the beginning of our documents; inside, we can store information about our webpage, such as the title, which shows up at the very top of your screen, a description to help search engines figure out what words best describe the page contents, and keywords related to the website’s topic.

<title></title>- The actual text you see on the tabbed window will go between these two tags. This appears in the browser’s bar above the URL address field. For example: “<title>”My Website”</title>. 

HTML elements such as headings, paragraphs and images can be given different font styles, sizes and colors using CSS rules. This makes websites look attractive and easy to read on any device ranging from mobile phones to desktop computers.

CSS is a language that helps us make the things we see on websites look the way they do. CSS greatly increases the ease with which the look of a website can be updated. For example, you can use it to change the colors of the background or text, set font sizes and styles, arrange elements and more. The syntax used in writing CSS consists of rules which tell web browsers how HTML elements should be displayed. 

A basic rule has three parts: selector (which element(s) to style), property (what aspect needs to be modified) and value (how exactly). To give an example, if I wanted my <h1> heading tag’s color to be blue, then this would be written as follows: h1 {color: blue;} Here ‘h1’ is our selector; ‘color’ is our property and ‘blue’ is its value indicating what color changes need to be made.

Database query language

A database is like a big library that stores lots of information. It’s similar to an electronic filing cabinet, where you can store important documents and look them up whenever you need to find something. For example, if your school had a database, it could store all the student records, including grades, attendance figures and class schedules. Teachers or administrators could access this data quickly when they needed it. 

Databases are also used for things such as online shopping. When customers buy items from websites, their orders get stored in databases, so businesses know what products people have purchased and how much money was spent on each one. Databases help keep track of different types of information, which makes it easier to manage all the details.

Structured Query Language (SQL) is a programming language used to store, manage and retrieve data from relational databases. It allows users to create tables and query the database using commands such as SELECT, INSERT INTO and UPDATE. SQL also provides a way to join multiple tables together so that you can retrieve data from more than one table at once. In addition, it enables users to filter records based on criteria they specify in their queries. Understanding how SQL works is essential for anyone who wants access to information stored in databases. SQL is an important computer language as it helps businesses manage data.

Referring back to the example above, in a school setting, SQL can be used to store grades or attendance records for each student over the year. This makes it easier to quickly find information about how students are doing throughout the school year.

Companies often have complex databases with multiple tables storing customer orders and inventory lists which require efficient retrieval of specific pieces of information rather than searching through all the records manually, as this would be extremely time-consuming. By using SQL statements such as SELECT queries, users can easily extract what they need from their database instantly. This saves them both time and resources when dealing with large amounts of data and makes businesses more efficient. This is especially helpful in scenarios where you may want to track changes made by different people at various points during development cycles too, allowing teams to accurately pinpoint any errors they might encounter while working together on projects.

SQL is extremely important because business data is often stored in online databases, and SQL is one of the main languages that provide engineers with access to that data. Security for such databases is remarkably important. If you hear about database breaches, such as the LastPass breach, this means that someone has been able to access the company’s customer data.

Learn more

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A programming language for everyone

Technology has come a long way in terms of how humans communicate with computers. From low-level languages such as assembly language to higher-level languages such as Python and JavaScript, there are many ways for developers to create code that runs on both web pages and applications. HTML and CSS help format web pages so they look attractive across various devices. SQL is used to store, manage and retrieve data from relational databases.

Richard is an experienced tech journalist and blogger who is passionate about new and emerging technologies. He provides insightful and engaging content for Connection Cafe and is committed to staying up-to-date on the latest trends and developments.